邱锴,胡海旭.文化与团体项目竞技能力——霍夫斯泰德文化维度之于足球的实证[J].北京体育大学学报,2019,42(2):133-146.
文化与团体项目竞技能力——霍夫斯泰德文化维度之于足球的实证
Culture and Group Sport’s Competitive Capability: Evidence from Hofstede's Cultural Dimension to Football
投稿时间:2018-05-26  
DOI:10.19582/j.cnki.11-3785/g8.2019.02.015
中文关键词:  关键词:竞技能力  团体运动项目  Hofstede文化理论  足球竞技水平
英文关键词:Keywords: competitive capability  team sport  Hofstede’s cultural theory  football’s competitive level
基金项目:国家社会科学基金一般项目(编号:16BTY074);江苏省社会科学基金后期资助项目(编号:17HQ046)。通信作者:胡海旭。
作者单位
邱锴 南京邮电大学体育部江苏 南京 210023 
胡海旭 南京航空航天大学体育部江苏 南京 211106 
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中文摘要:
      摘要:目的:团体运动项目的竞技能力难以简化为经典竞技能力结构,基因组水平的解析同样不足,“文化基因”的作用或是一个重要补充,探讨文化如何影响团体项目竞技能力具有理论和实践意义。方法:足球为例证,通过应用较广泛的霍夫斯泰德(Hofstede)国家文化维度理论来量化文化维度,以72个国家自1993至2017年的FIFA公布的男女足球世界排名平均值测度国家足球竞技能力水平,采用基于最小二乘法的多元线性回归方程分析和估计国家文化对男女足球竞技能力的影响。结果:(1)不确定性规避、人均GDP的对数和足球人口比例的对数均有显著性差异,共同解释了男足竞技能力62%的变异。其中的不确定性规避的系数为-0.77(p<0.001),人均GDP的对数的系数为-28.79(P<0.001),足球人口比例的对数的系数为-68.40(P<0.001);(2)个人主义/集体主义、自身放纵与约束、人均GDP取对数均有显著性差异,共同解释了女足竞技能力65%的变异。其中的个人主义/集体主义的系数为-0.43(p<0.05), 自身放纵与约束的系数为-0.41(p<0.05),人均GDP的对数的系数为-24.45(P<0.001)。结论:团体项目竞技能力受到文化的影响显著,塑造团体项目的球队文化对提升竞技能力有一定的积极作用。以足球为例,就总体趋势而言,男子足球主要受到“不确定性规避”的影响,国家文化中的不确定性规避得分越高男足竞技能力越强;女子足球主要受到个人主义/集体主义、自身放纵与约束等文化特征的影响,国家文化中个人主义和自身放纵得分越高,女足竞技能力越强,这些可以为足球文化建设提供一些有益参考。虽然文化因素对团体项目竞技能力的影响也并非绝对,但团体项目的组织管理、运动精神塑造、项目规律认知等的“文化基因”不容小觑。
英文摘要:
      Abstract: Objective: The competitive ability of team sports is difficult to simplify into classical competitive ability structure. The analysis of genome level is also inadequate, and the role of "cultural gene" may be an important supplement. It is of theoretical and practical significance to explore how culture affects team sports competitiveness. Methods: Taking football as an example, the cultural dimension was quantified through the widely used Hofstede national cultural dimension theory, and the national football competitive capability was measured by the average of the men’s and women’s soccer world rankings published by FIFA from 1993 to 2017. The influence of national culture on the competitive capability of male and female footballs was estimated by General Multivariate Linear Regression Equation based on least squares. Results: 1) The uncertainty avoidance, the logarithm of GDP per capita and the logarithm of the proportion of football population were different significantly, which explained the variation of competitive ability of men’s football team by 62%. The coefficient of uncertainty avoidance was -0.77 (P < 0.001), the coefficient of logarithm of GDP per capita was -28.79 (P < 0.001), and the coefficient of logarithm of football population ratio was -68.40 (P < 0.001). 2) Individualism/collectivism, indulgence and restraint, and per capita GDP logarithm were different significantly, which jointly explained the 65% variation of competitive ability of women's football team. The coefficient of individualism/collectivism was -0.43 (P < 0.05), the coefficient of indulgence and restraint was -0.41 (P < 0.05), and the coefficient of logarithm of per capita GDP was -24.45 (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The competitive ability of group sports was significantly influenced by culture, and the team culture had positive effect on improving competitive ability. Taking football as an example, in terms of the overall trend, men's football capability was mainly affected by “uncertainty avoidance”. The higher the uncertainty avoidance score in national culture, the stronger the men's football capability; women's football is mainly influenced by cultural characteristics such as individualism/collectivism, indulgence and restraint. The higher the individualism and indulgence scores in national culture, the higher the women's football capability, which can provide some useful reference for football culture construction. Although the influence of cultural factors on the competitive capability of group projects is not absolute, the "cultural genes" such as organization and management of group projects, the sports spirit shaping and the project rules recognition should not be underestimated.
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