温煦,张莹,周鲁,华君,等.体质健康对青少年学业成绩影响及其作用机制研究——来自纵向研究的证据[J].北京体育大学学报,2018,41(7):70-76.
体质健康对青少年学业成绩影响及其作用机制研究——来自纵向研究的证据
Influence of Physical Fitness on Academic Achievement in Adolescents: Evidences from a Longitudinal Study
投稿时间:2017-08-24  
DOI:10.19582/j.cnki.11-3785/g8.2018.07.010
中文关键词:  关键词:体质  健康  体育锻炼  学业成绩
英文关键词:Keywords: fitness  health  physical exercise  academic achievement
基金项目:国家社会科学基金教育学青年课题(项目编号:CLA140159)。
作者单位
温煦 浙江大学教育学院体育学系浙江 杭州 310028 
张莹 浙江师范大学杭州幼儿师范学院浙江 杭州 310012 
周鲁 浙江大学教育学院体育学系浙江 杭州 310028 
华君 浙江大学教育学院体育学系浙江 杭州 310028 
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中文摘要:
      摘要:目的:研究体质健康对青少年学业成绩的影响,并探索其作用机制。方法:对966名初一学生进行了为期2年的追踪研究。采用全国体质健康测试的方法和标准分别在学生初一第1学期和初二第2学期进行测试和评分。以学生在初二下学期语文、数学、英语、科学、社会5门课的期末考试的标准分作为学生学业成绩指标。采用中国科学院心理研究所编制的《青少年执行功能量表》测量学生的执行功能。结果:有氧耐力水平低的学生其学业成绩也更差,且差异在均具有显著性(P<0.05)。有氧耐力水平变化对各学科成绩影响的效应量达到中等水平,Partial η2在0.074~0.081。体重水平超重,肌肉力量、柔韧性和速度水平下降同样可能引起学业成绩下降,但是效应较小。青少年体质影响学业成绩的路径不仅有直接影响,也有通过执行功能的间接影响,模型拟合程度良好(NFI=0.94;CFI=0.96; RMSEA=0.079)。结论:学生体质健康的改善可能有助于提升其学业成绩。不同的体质要素对于学业表现的影响程度有所不同,有氧耐力对于学业成绩的影响达到了中等效应水平,而体重水平、肌肉力量、柔韧性和速度对于学业成绩的效应较小。执行功能是学生体质健康影响学业成绩的中介变量,在两者关系中发挥了重要作用。
英文摘要:
      Abstract: Objective: To investigate the influence of physical fitness on adolescents’ academic achievement and explore its mechanism. Methods: Nine hundred and sixty-six grade 7 students were recruited in this 2-year longitudinal study. Students’ aerobic endurance, weight status, muscular strength, flexibility and speed were tested in first year and the second year with the method of National Student Fitness Survey. The standardized scores of Chinese, Mathematics, English, Science and Society in the final examinations in the second year were used as indicators of academic achievement. Students’ executive function was measured by Adolescents’ Executive Function Scale which was developed by Institute of Psychology in Chinese Academy of Sciences. Results: The students with low aerobic endurance had significant poorer academic performance (P <0.05), and the effect of aerobic endurance on academic achievement was moderate (Partial η2: 0.074-0.081) was found. Overweight, muscle strength, flexibility and speed decline also may cause academic performance decline, but the effects were small. Students' physical fitness had direct effect on their academic performance, and had indirect impact on it through executive function; the fitting degree of its model is good (NFI=0.94; CFI=0.96; RMSEA=0.079). Conclusions: The improvement of students' physical health may help to improve their academic performance. The influence of different physical factors on academic performance was different. The effect of aerobic endurance on academic performance had reached a moderate level, while the effect of weight, muscle strength, flexibility and speed on academic performance was less. Executive function plays an important role in the relationship between students' physical health and their academic performance.
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