杨宗青,米靖,张承毅,万祥林,刘转青,等.比赛中不同水平篮球运动员三分跳投动作特征比较研究[J].北京体育大学学报,2018,41(6):107-116.
比赛中不同水平篮球运动员三分跳投动作特征比较研究
A Comparative Study on the Characteristics of Three Points Jump Shot of Basketball Players of Different Levels in the Competition
投稿时间:2017-06-06  修订日期:2018-04-26
DOI:10.19582/j.cnki.11-3785/g8.2018.06.016
中文关键词:  关键词:篮球  三分跳投  动作特征  三维摄像
英文关键词:Keywords: basketball  three points jump shot  action feature  3D camera
基金项目:教育部新世纪优秀人才支持计划资助项目(教技函[2013]47号);中央高校基本科研业务费北京体育大学自主科研课题(2014YX002)。通信作者:米靖。
作者单位
杨宗青 湖南师范大学湖南 长沙 410081 
米靖 北京体育大学北京 100084 
张承毅 北京体育大学北京 100084 
万祥林 北京体育大学北京 100084 
刘转青 贵州师范大学广西 贵阳 550025 
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中文摘要:
      摘要:目的:跳投已成为现代篮球比赛中的主要得分手段。对不同水平比赛中三分跳投的动作特征比较,能揭示其共性特征和优化特征。方法:采用比赛现场三维摄像,视讯解析系统,单因素方差分析等方法采集,解析及统计数据,分析了中国男子篮球职业联赛(CBA,高水平组),中国大学生篮球超级联赛(CUBS,中水平组),高校业余联赛(低水平组)等3个水平比赛的三分跳投。结论:跳投的共性特征有:1)跳投的各动作阶段持续时间所占比例大小依次为举球阶段,稳定阶段,投球阶段,随球阶段,准备阶段。2)远距离投篮都在重心达最高点之前出手,需借助重心向上的速度,以给球更大的初速度,产生更大的出手速度。3)各关节遵循了近侧端→远侧端的发力顺序,各关节角速度从近侧端→远侧端依次增大。最大伸肘速度与球出手瞬间几乎同步,可能对球的出手速度影响最大。4)稳定阶段小幅度的肘外张角与上肢关节解剖结构的限制有关。上臂的外展,肩轴,髋轴的旋转有利于肘,腕,眼正对篮圈,保持上肢各关节的屈伸运动与球的飞行方向一致,也使球在出手前更接近篮圈。5)在比赛中,出手时躯干小幅度的后倾可以拉开与防守者的水平距离,减少来自防守的干扰。也有利于保持身体的平衡和动作的稳定,并形成更大的出手角度。跳投的优化特征有:1)高水平组在一次完整的跳投中持续更长时间,表现在有更长的稳定阶段,腾空时间和随球阶段。可能是高水平组更高的起跳高度和更接近重心最高点的出手时机引起。更长的稳定阶段和腾空时间使其身体重心更稳定,并有更充裕的时间调节身体姿态和对球的控制,更长的随球阶段则表明动作完成得更充分、舒展,有利于产生更好的动作效果。2)高、中水平组相对于低水平组有更高的出手高度,其原因除身高外,更主要的是起跳高度和出手时机。
英文摘要:
      Abstract: Purpose: Jump shot has become the main means of scoring in modern basketball matches. Comparing the movement characteristics of three point jumpers in different level competitions, it can reveal its common characteristics and optimization features. Methods: This study analyzed the three points jump shot in China Men's Basketball Occupation League (CBA, high level competitions), China CUBSL (CUBS, middle level competitions), the Amateur League (low level competitions) by using 3D camera and video analysis system, and the data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Conclusions: Common features of jump shot: 1) The longest duration of stages of jump shot was the lifting stage, followed by the stabilization stage, the pitch stage, the ball stage and the preparation stage. With the upward speed of the center of gravity, the ball had a larger initial speed and the release speed was greater. 3) The joints followed the order of force from the proximal end to the far end, and the angular velocity of each joint increased from the proximal end to the far end. The maximum elbow speed was almost the same as that of the ball, which may have the greatest impact on the speed of the ball. 4) In the stable stage, the small external elbow angle was related to the anatomical structure of the upper limb joints. In the stable stage, the small external elbow angle was related to the anatomical structure of the upper limb joints. The abduction of the upper arm, the rotation of the shoulder axis and the hip axis were beneficial to the elbow, wrist and eyes on the ring, kept the flexion and extension of the joints of the upper limbs consistent with the direction of the ball's flight, and made the ball be closer to the rim before release. 5) In games, a slight backward tilt of the trunk could help to draw the horizontal distance from the defender and reduce interference from defense. It also helped maintain the balance and stability of the body and formed a greater angle of release. Optimization features of jump shot: 1) The duration of one jump shot was longest in high level group, the jump shot had longer stability stage, flight time and ball stage. This may be caused by the higher take-off height and the release timing to get closer to the highest point of gravity in high level group. The longer stable stage and the flight time made the body center of gravity more stable, and had more time to adjust the posture and control of the ball. The longer ball stage indicated that the action was more complete, which was conducive to better movement effect. 2) The higher and middle level group had higher height than the low level group; its main reason was takeoff height and release timing as well as body height.
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