辛锋,刘生杰.“木桶理论”视域下优秀女子全能运动员成绩结构的理性审视[J].北京体育大学学报,2017,40(9):118-122+129.
“木桶理论”视域下优秀女子全能运动员成绩结构的理性审视
A Rational Examination on the Structure of Elite Female Heptathlon Athletes’ Performance Based on the "Barrel Theory"
投稿时间:2016-03-27  
DOI:10.19582/j.cnki.11-3785/g8.2017.09.018
中文关键词:  关键词:木桶理论  女子全能  运动员  成绩结构  理性审视
英文关键词:Keywords: barrel theory  women’s heptathlon  athletes  performance structure  rational examination
基金项目:基金项目:山西省体育局科研课题(项目编号:14yb114)。
作者单位
辛锋 忻州师范学院体育系山西 忻州 034000 
刘生杰 山西大学体育学院山西 太原 030006 
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中文摘要:
      摘要:女子七项全能成绩是各单项成绩的得分之和,因此,女子七项全能各单项之间、各单项与最终成绩之间的相互关系和内在规律是影响全能成绩的关键因素,如何把握这关键因素是取得优异成绩的重中之重。运用文献资料、数理统计等研究方法,对第12届全运会与第15届田径世锦赛女子七项全能前8名运动员的各单项成绩和得分情况以及其对总成绩的贡献率进行比较研究。结果表明:1)中国与世界优秀女子七项全能运动员总成绩存在较大差距,但是这种差距主要体现在单项成绩上。2)中国与世界优秀女子全能运动员各项群的得分排序与对总成绩的贡献率结构基本一致,没有本质的差异。3)中国优秀女子七项全能运动员成绩不理想的原因是“优势项目(100米栏、跳高、200米)”不强,“劣势项目(标枪、跳远和铅球)”太弱,而且项目之间差异较大,不具有均衡性的态势。建议:1)采用“木桶原理”的方法,狠抓劣势项目。2)树立“以速度项目为核心,以跳跃项目为主线,以投掷项目为突破”的女子全能项目选材观和训练观。为我国田径女子全能成绩的可持续发展提供理论依据。
英文摘要:
      Abstract: The woman's heptathlon score is the sum of scores of individual events, thus, the individual event, the relationship between the individual event and the final results and the inherent law are the key factors affecting all-round performance; how to grasp these key factors is the key to achieve excellent results. Using the methods of literature review and mathematical statistics, this study analyzed the individual events’ scores and their contributions to total score of top eight athletes of woman's heptathlon in the 12th National Games and the 15th World Women`s Track and Field Championships. Results: 1) There is a big gap of performance between Chinese and the world's elite female heptathlon athletes, and that is mainly reflected in individual events’ results. 2) There is no difference of scores and score contribution rate to total score between Chinese and the world's elite female heptathlon athletes. 3) The reasons for the unsatisfactory results of Chinese athletes are that the "advantage events (100 meters hurdles, high jumps, 200 meters)" are not strong, "disadvantages events (javelin, long jump and shot)" are too weak, and the differences among events are large. Suggestions: We should pay more attention to the disadvantage events by using the "barrel theory", set up athlete selection and training concept of women’s heptathlon that is "speed event as the core, jumping event as the main line, and throwing event as the breakthrough". This study provided theoretical references for sustainably improving Chinese female heptathlon’s performance.
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