解正伟.竞技运动专项的“核心”及其训练研究——以田径项目为例[J].北京体育大学学报,2017,40(9):112-117+145.
竞技运动专项的“核心”及其训练研究——以田径项目为例
Core of Specific Events of Competitive Sport and Its Training: Taking Track and Field Events as Examples
投稿时间:2017-04-18  
DOI:10.19582/j.cnki.11-3785/g8.2017.09.017
中文关键词:  关键词:竞技运动专项  核心  专项核心能力  训练理念  田径
英文关键词:Keywords: specific events of competitive sport  core  core competence of event  training idea  track and field
基金项目:基金项目:广东省体育局2016 - 2017 年科研课题青年项目(GDSS2016057):大数据驱动下的竞技体育变革;广州体育学院“创新强校工程——创新科研团队项目“(013):竞技体育研究中心团队。
作者单位
解正伟 广州体育学院广东 广州 510500 
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中文摘要:
      摘要:试图从竞技运动表现的整体属性和系统功能出发,运用文献资料法、专家访谈法,阐释竞技运动专项的核心及其训练理念。研究结论:竞技运动专项的核心应是主导和决定竞技水平的专项核心能力;基于项群理论分析各亚类项群的专项核心能力;以田径项目为例,论述分析专项核心能力的方法,指出短跑是以专项素质、神经反应和动作的经济性为核心,竞走和中长跑是以专项素质、技术经济性和心肺系统能力为核心,跳跃项目以专项素质、技术协调和适时爆发能力为核心,投掷项目以运动链的优化整合与蓄势爆发能力为核心;提出从竞技需要出发,密切结合专项特征,紧抓专项运动链的系统功能区域,优化选择训练方法和手段,合理安排训练负荷,将专项素质能力与专项技术、神经系统、心智调控综合发展的训练理念,以期能为竞技训练提供参考。
英文摘要:
      Abstract: This paper attempts to explain the core of specific events of competitive sport and training ideas from the overall attributes and system functions of competitive sports performance, by the methods of literature review and expert interview. Conclusions: The core of specific events should be the specific core ability to lead and decide competitive level; this study analyzes the specific core ability of sub event group based on the theory of event group; taking track and field events as examples, this study analyzes the specific core ability, points out that the core competence of sprint is specific quality, reaction and the economy of action, the core competence of race walking and middle and long-distance race is specific quality, technique economy and cardiorespiratory endurance, that of jumping event is specific quality ability, technique coordination and timely explosive force, that of throwing event is the optimization and combination of the kinetic chain and prepared explosive force; we should consider competitive needs, combine specific characteristics, get the function area of specific kinetic chain, optimize training methods, reasonably arrange training load, combine specific quality with specific skills, nervous system and mental control. We hope to provide references for competitive training.
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