苑廷刚,王国杰,郑富强,黄俊红,胡水清,米奕祥,吕婕,等.我国优秀女子铅球运动员竞技能力状态的综合监测和研究[J].北京体育大学学报,2017,40(9):96-104.
我国优秀女子铅球运动员竞技能力状态的综合监测和研究
Comprehensive Monitor and Research on Competitive Ability of Chinese Elite Female Shot Putter
投稿时间:2017-07-01  
DOI:10.19582/j.cnki.11-3785/g8.2017.09.015
中文关键词:  关键词:女子铅球  出手参数  专项肌力  基础肌力  视频图像系统  专项训练仪器  竞技能力监测
英文关键词:Keywords: women’s shot put  release parameters  specific muscle strength  basic muscle strength  video image system  specific training equipment  monitoring of competitive ability
基金项目:基金项目:中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费国家体育总局体育科学研究所基本科研业务费 (基本16-34)资助。
作者单位
苑廷刚 国家体育总局体育科学研究所北京 100061 
王国杰 国家体育总局体育科学研究所北京 100061 
郑富强 山东师范大学体育学院山东 济南 250014 
黄俊红 国家体育总局体育科学研究所北京 100061 
胡水清 国家体育总局体育科学研究所北京 100061 
米奕祥 国家体育总局体育科学研究所北京 100061 
吕婕 西安体育学院陕西 西安 710068 
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中文摘要:
      摘要:研究目的是通过多学科和综合性理论知识,对我国田径女子铅球项目备战世界大赛中取得的研究成果进行总结,建立适合我国女子铅球优秀运动员竞技能力综合监测和研究系统,为我国优秀运动员备战奥运会等重大比赛提供理论参考和实践依据。研究方法主要是实验测试法、仪器研制法、文献研究法、专家访谈法和数理统计法。结论:1)优秀女子铅球运动员竞技能力综合监测和研究系统的建立,帮助了我国优秀女子铅球运动员提高了竞技能力,并为该项目的整体发展水平的提高提供了科学的保障。2)铅球项目出手速度与成绩之间相关系数为r=0.94(p<0.01),与出手高度和出手角度为中度相关(p<0.05);世界级优秀女子运动员的出手速度达到13.80m/s以上,最佳出手角度为38°。我国优秀女子铅球运动员整体出手速度相对较低,除巩立姣外外普遍小于13.50m/s。3)高水平女子铅球运动员训练负荷具有个性化特征,在奥运会备战周期中专项技术训练和专项力量训练所占比重较大。4)上肢专项力量能力与铅球运动员的成绩高度相关(r=0.80),下肢蹬伸专项力量与铅球成绩中度相关(r=0.40)。原地投平均下肢最大合力值ΣF相当于体重的1.45倍,垂直方向上的Fz相当于运动员体重的1.40倍;优秀铅球运动员有着强大的投掷臂肘关节力量素质(p<0.05)。5)专项信息反馈、最佳竞技心理素质和视频图像快速反馈能很好地帮助提高铅球运动员的竞技能力。6)田径专项视频技术分析软件和铅球专项力量训练仪器研制,对女子铅球项目运动员竞技能力提高具有较大的帮助作用。
英文摘要:
      Abstract: This study summarized research achievements in preparation for world competitions of Chinese elite female shot putter, established comprehensive monitor and research system of competitive ability for Chinese athletes, by multidisciplinary and comprehensive theoretical knowledge, aimed at providing theoretical and practice references for Chinese elite shot putters to prepare for big competitions such as Olympics. The methods of experimental test, equipment development, literature review, expert interview and mathematical statistics were used. Conclusions: 1) The establishment of comprehensive monitor and research system of competitive ability for Chinese elite female shot putters has helped our elite athletes improve their competitive ability and provided scientific guarantee for the overall development of the event. 2) The release velocity of shot is correlated to result (r = 0.94, P < 0.01), release height and angle (P < 0.05); the release velocity of world elite female shot putters is more than 13.80 m/s and the best release angle is 38 °, Chinese female athletes’ release velocity is less than 13.5 m/s, except one athlete Gong Lijiao. 3) The training load of high level female shot putter has individual characteristics; specific technique training and specific strength training have high proportion during the preparation period of the Olympic Games. 4) Specific strength of upper limbs is highly related to the result in high level female shot putter (r = 0.80), the specific strength of lower limbs is moderately related to the result (r=0.40); the mean maximum resultant force ΣF of lower limbs of standing throw is equivalent to 1.45 times the body weight, and the vertical ΣF is equivalent to 1.40 times the body weight; elite shot putter has a powerful elbow (P < 0.05). 5) The specific information feedback, the best competitive psychological quality and the fast feedback of video images can improve the competitive ability of shot putter. 6) The development of specific video image analysis software and specific strength training equipment has great help to improve the competitive ability of female shot putters.
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