伊诺,陶永纯,邱招义.欧洲早期滑雪运动发展社会动因及对我国的启示[J].北京体育大学学报,2017,40(9):9-15.
欧洲早期滑雪运动发展社会动因及对我国的启示
Social Motivation of Early Skiing in Europe and Its Enlightenment to China
投稿时间:2016-11-08  
DOI:10.19582/j.cnki.11-3785/g8.2017.09.002
中文关键词:  关键词:滑雪运动  欧洲  工业革命  社会动因  精英引导  国家塑造  学校滑雪课程  休闲娱乐
英文关键词:Keywords: skiing  Europe  industrial revolution  social motivation  elite guidance  national shaping  school skiing courses  recreation
基金项目:基金项目:国家社会科学基金重点课题“2022年冬奥会对我国雪上运动发展的影响研究”(项目编号:16ATY004)。通信作者:邱招义。
作者单位
伊诺 北京体育大学北京 100084 
陶永纯 哈尔滨工业大学体育部黑龙江 哈尔滨 150001 
邱招义 北京体育大学北京 100084 
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中文摘要:
      摘要:成功申办2022年冬奥会以来,我国冰雪事业迎来重大发展契机,带动3亿人参与冰雪运动成为我国冬季运动发展的重要目标。采用文献资料法、历史分析法等研究方法,回顾欧洲早期滑雪运动发展的社会动因,是将滑雪运动置于整体社会发展环境中,对生产力、生产关系以及社会的需求等要素进行综合分析,其发展规律反映了生产力发展、精英引导、国家意志等因素的共同作用,体现了欧洲滑雪运动从贵族精英、健康观念形成向大众参与理念转变的发展历程。研究欧洲滑雪从少数人引领到大众参与的进程,将为我国滑雪运动大众化普及提供借鉴。分析认为:1)精英阶级对于滑雪运动的热情促成了滑雪俱乐部在欧洲的兴起,在满足休闲娱乐之余,有效地将滑雪运动与公民意识相结合,培养了社会大众对于资产阶级统治的认同感。2)军事滑雪运动的发展是滑雪运动实现精英阶级向大众推广的重要途径。一战前夕,各国滑雪部队建立,扩大了滑雪运动的参与范围,为国家军事滑雪人才奠定了基础。3)一战后,欧洲国家将滑雪运动引入学校课程体系。政府通过设置学校滑雪课程、降低滑雪价格、住宿、成本等方式鼓励青少年参与滑雪运动,打破了经济基础决定滑雪参与的局面,扩大了滑雪运动的参与群体。随着滑雪人数的增多,各国滑雪比赛逐渐增多推动了国际性滑雪组织建立,欧洲早期滑雪运动得以发展壮大。
英文摘要:
      Abstract: Since the successful bid to host the 2022 Winter Olympic Games, China’s ice and snow sports have ushered an important development opportunity, driving three hundred million people involved in the winter sports has become an important goal. This study reviewed social motivation of early skiing in Europe by putting skiing in the overall social development environment, analyzed three key factors including productivity, relation of production and social demand, the development law of these factors reflects the combination effect of the productive forces, the guidance of the elite, the will of the country and other factors, and reflects the development process of European skiing from the elite and health concept to the public participation. Studying on the process of skiing from the minority to the public will provide a reference for the popularization of skiing in China. Conclusions: 1) The enthusiasm of the elite class for skiing has led to the rise of ski clubs in Europe. Beside meeting the leisure entertainment, effectively combined skiing with civic awareness cultivates the public’s identity sense of bourgeois rule. 2) The development of military skiing is an important way to promote the elite class to the public. On the eve of the first World War, the establishment of skiing troops in various countries expanded the scope of participation in skiing and laid the foundation for the national military ski talents.3) After the first World War, the European countries introduced skiing into school curriculum system. The government set up school curriculum, reduce the skiing price, and accommodation price and skiing cost to encourage young people to participate in skiing, which break the economic base determining participation and expand participation groups in skiing. With the increase of skiing people, skiing competitions in various countries gradually promoted the establishment of international skiing organization, and the early European skiing developed and growed.
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