卓金源,吴赵昭,徐旻霄,罗安民,王卫星,赵杰修,米靖,等.高原体能训练对我国高水平优秀篮球运动员身体机能与形态的影响研究[J].北京体育大学学报,2017,40(3):93-100.
高原体能训练对我国高水平优秀篮球运动员身体机能与形态的影响研究
Effect of Altitude Physical Fitness Training on Physical Function and Body Shape of Elite Basketball Players in China
投稿时间:2016-07-17  
DOI:10.19582/j.cnki.11-3785/g8.2017.03.015
中文关键词:  关键词:高原训练  体能  篮球运动员  身体机能  身体形态
英文关键词:Keywords: altitude  physical training  basketball player  physical function  body shape
基金项目:基金项目:国家男子篮球队备战里约奥运会综合科技服务(项目编号:2015H7012)。
作者单位
卓金源 北京体育大学北京 100084 
吴赵昭 西北大学体育教研部陕西 西安 710127 
徐旻霄 上海体育学院运动科学学院上海 200438 
罗安民 成都体育学院四川 成都 610041 
王卫星 北京体育大学北京 100084 
赵杰修 国家体育总局体育科学研究所北京 100084) 
米靖 北京体育大学北京 100084 
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中文摘要:
      摘要:以2015年中国男篮高原期间体能训练为研究对象,在高原训练过程中对中国男篮队员进行体能训练干预并进行追踪测试,并对高原前后身体机能与身体形态的变化进行深入研究,以期对高水平篮球运动员的高原体能训练进行科学化探索。方法:使用韩国Bio Space公司Inbody3.0体成分测试仪分别在上高原和下高原前测试身体成分;使用贝克曼库尔特公司GEN.S血细胞分析仪等仪器分别在上高原、高原中和下高原前测试身体机能。结果: HB、RBC和HCT在高原训练后都发生了显著的变化(P<0.01);BUN与CK呈现先升高、再降低趋势;T与C则先降低、后升高;T/C则呈逐步上升趋势,但无显著性差异;身体成分中除了脂肪含量、腰臀比和体脂百分比有显著降低外(P<0.05),其他指标没有显著变化(P>0.05)。结论: 1)高原体能训练可以显著提高篮球运动员血液携氧能力,这种能力在高原训练第11天的测试中发现有明显的提高,并于第21天达到非常显著水平。因此要改善篮球运动员机能水平,高原体能训练应至少持续21天。2)BUN和CK呈先上升后下降的趋势,且与高原体能训练负荷量的变化密切相关,因此BUN和CK可以作为今后高原体能训练负荷量控制的参考指标。3)T和C呈先下降后上升趋势,T/C则呈升高趋势,说明此次高原训练负荷安排科学合理,运动员没有发生疲劳现象,机体合成代谢能力得到提高。4)高原体能训练可以降低篮球运动员的体脂含量,但对肌肉围度的影响则与高原训练的高度、形式及负荷有关。5)此次高原体能训练模式可以作为其他高水平篮球队进行高原体能训练的参考。
英文摘要:
      Abstract: Taking the altitude physical fitness training of Chinese men's national basketball team in 2015 as research object, this study did training intervention on it, and explored the changes of players’ physical function and body shape before and after intervention, in order to detect more scientific altitude training methods for basketball players. Methods: Players’ Body composition was tested by Inbody3.0 (Biospace Korea) before and after training, physical function was measured by GEN.S (Kurt Beckmann) before, at and after training. Results: After altitude training, HB, RBC and HCT significantly changed (P < 0.01); BUN and CK increased at first and then decreased; T and C decreased at first and then increased; T/C increased gradually but no difference; the indexes of body composition didn’t change (P > 0.05), except fat content, waist-to-hip ratio and body fat percentage (P < 0.05). Conclusions: 1) Altitude physical fitness training could significantly improve basketball players’ blood carry oxygen capacity that was improved in the 11st day and reached a very obvious level at 21st day. Thus altitude physical fitness training should be continued 21 days at least to improve basketball players’ physical function. 2) BUN and CK increased at first and then decreased, and the changes of them were related to training load volume, which suggested that BUN and CK can be used as indicators to control altitude physical fitness training load. 3) T and C decreased at first and then increased, T/C increased, which indicated that this altitude training load arrangement is scientific and reasonable, athletes fatigue do not occur, players’ anabolic ability is improved. 4) Altitude physical fitness training can effectively reduce the basketball athletes’ body fat, and muscle circumference is related to the altitude height, training model and training load. 5) This altitude physical fitness training can be a reference for other high level basketball team.
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