武冬.“单对统一”武术套路竞赛模式研究[J].北京体育大学学报,2016,39(4):101-108.
“单对统一”武术套路竞赛模式研究
Unifying Single Practice and Pair Practice: A Wushu Routine Competition Model
投稿时间:2015-06-23  
DOI:
中文关键词:  关键词:单对统一  套路竞赛  拳势  攻防规律
英文关键词:Keywords: unifying single practice and pair practice  routine competition  Quan Shi  law of offensive and defensive
基金项目:基金项目:2012年武术管理中心课题成果(编号:WSH2012CO16);2015年第十届全国体育科学大会武术专题主题报告。
作者单位
武冬 北京体育大学北京 100084 
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中文摘要:
      摘要:采用文献资料、专家访谈、运动实践等方法,研究了武术套路竞赛单对统一的历史、特征、方法等问题,经过分析目前武术套路竞赛中存在的技法缺失和劲法失真问题,以及单练套路与对练套路严重不匹配问题,以及对“打练结合”理解的误区,深刻认识武术套路本质与特征,最终提出了“单对统一”武术套路竞赛模式,单特指套路演练,对指套路式的对练,统一是指技法结构一致,实用劲法真实。强调套路“拳势”,单练与对打统一反映了武而文化、体用合一,重视过程,和合中庸等一系列思想,从比更高、更快、更强模式中解放出来,进而比和谐(单与对统一性)、巧妙(拳势结构复杂性)、修养(攻防转化柔化性),形成重体能更重技巧,重结果更重过程,重比赛更重修养的一种充满东方智慧的比赛模式。结论:1)武术套路构成基本单位是具有攻防技战术特征的——拳势。拳势不是随意的拼凑,必需具备战术意图和在一定条件下的可用性即攻防实效,能表现为“对打”。拳势攻防性是套路本质特征所在。 2)遵循套路结构的逻辑,如,路线结构是符合格斗“阵形”布局,动作衔接是遵循攻防转化规律,整体套路符合拳种要求。3)不同拳种的单练套路必需包含该拳种的若干主要拳势,同时,还必须使用主要拳势完成回合式、串联式等的对打形式。4)套路比赛是单练与对练统一的形式,单和对形式都要在“套式”模式下进行,评判主要标准在于对拳势合理性、多变性、艺术性等综合的整体性以及单练与对练的高度一致性。建议:单对统一是体用兼备的真正反映,是打练有机结合,是未来套路发展方向。建议首先在一些拳种比赛中采用此模式,不断完善本模式,在北京体育大学武术学院的10级武术专项训练中做了小范围的实践运用,有一定效果。
英文摘要:
      Abstract: This study analyzed the history, characteristics, and methods of unifying single practice and pair practice which is a Wushu routine competition by the methods of literature review, expert interview and sports practice. Techniques lack and power distortion in current Wushu routine competitions, serious uncoordination of single practice and pair practice, and misunderstanding of fighting and practice combination were discussed. Based on deep understanding of essence and characteristics of Wushu routine, we put forward the “unifying of single and pair practice” competition model. Single practice means specific routine performance, pair practice means two people fight each other with routine, and unify refers to a same structure of technique and method. Real power will be used in practice. This model emphasizes Quan Shi. Unifying single practice and pair practice reflected a series of ideas which are civilizing of fighting, unifying of foundation and using, emphasizing process, and moderation. It will liberate from the higher, faster, stronger model, and will be a competition model full of oriental wisdom with harmonious (unity of single and pair), ingenious (complicated structure of Quan Shi), and cultivation (converting between offensive and defensive softly), and it will emphasize skill more than physical fitness, emphasize result more than process, and emphasize competition more than culture. Conclusions: 1) Quanshi, with the characteristics of offensive and defensive tactics, is the basic unit of Wushu routine. Quanshi cannot clap up randomly; it has to have tactical intention and actual effect under certain conditions the available in offence and defense and can be showed in the way of pair practice. Offense and defense ability of Quan Shi is the essence of routine. 2) The model follows the logic of routine structure, such as route structure in accordance with combat formation layout, movement connection follows the law of offense and defense conversion, and the whole routine fits the requirement of all types boxing. 3) Single practice routine of different type boxing must have its main Quan Shi and use it to finish round type or tandem type pair practice. 4) Routine competition is unity of single practice and pair practice, both practices should be under the routine model, and the main judging criteria are reasonable, changeable, and artistic of Quan Shi and highly unification of single practice and pair practice. Suggestions: Unity of single practice and pair practice is the real reflection of both foundation and practice, organic combination between fight and practice, and future trend of routine development. We suggested that use this model at first in some types boxing competition and improve it. There is some good effect in a small range experiment held in 2010 Wushu specific training class of Beijing Sport University.
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