水祎舟,黄竹杭,耿建华.世界杯视角下高水平男子足球运动攻防战术能力特征研究[J].北京体育大学学报,2015,38(8):130-137+144.
世界杯视角下高水平男子足球运动攻防战术能力特征研究
Offense and Defense Tactic Characteristics of Men’s Football Elites in FIFA World Cup
投稿时间:2014-09-02  
DOI:10.19582/j.cnki.11-3785/g8.2015.08.020
中文关键词:  关键词:世界杯  高水平  攻防  战术能力  秩和比综合评价法
英文关键词:Key words: FIFA World Cup  high level  offense and defense  tactical ability  RSR
基金项目:
作者单位
水祎舟 北京体育大学北京 100084 
黄竹杭 北京体育大学北京 100084 
耿建华 陕西师范大学体育学院陕西 西安 710054 
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中文摘要:
      摘要:采用文献资料调研、数理统计、录像观察和专家访谈等方法,以第20届世界杯足球赛参赛队和近三届世界杯前4名球队为研究对象,利用RSR法对第20届世界杯参赛球队的整体攻防实力进行综合评价,力求对当前世界高水平足球运动的攻防战术能力特征进行提炼与总结。结论:第20届世界杯足球赛荷兰队、德国队2支欧洲球队攻防综合能力最突出,法国、巴西等4支球队紧随其后。且各参赛队攻防RSR值与最终排名的相关系数R=0.669,(P<0.01),两者呈显著相关。根据整体攻防能力的分布特征,本届世界杯各参赛球队综合能力可为5档。当前世界足坛高水平球队的总体战术能力特征为:强调整体的协同作战;战术阵型灵活多变;球员的能力全面;球队攻守兼备。进攻战术能力特征为:传控型打法主导;战术纪律严明;传球质量突出;进攻套路丰富多样;定位球战术配合娴熟默契。防守战术能力特征为:球队战术目的的针对性与球员个人战术行动的明确性相结合;球队战术变化的多样性与球员防守战术意识的协作性完美统一;守门员全面的个人能力和优秀的决策能力体现了新时代高水平足球运动的战术要求。
英文摘要:
      Abstract: This study used RSR to analyze overall offense and defense ability of all the teams in the 20th FIFA World Cup and semi final teams in the last three FIFA world cups by the methods of literature review, mathematical statistics, video observation, and expert interview. Then we concluded offense and defense tactic characteristics of present men’s football elites. Conclusions: In the 20th FIFA World Cup, Netherlands and Germany have the best overall ability of defense and offense, and France, Brazil and other two teams followed closely. The correlation between RSR value and the final ranking is significant (R = 0.669, P < 0.01). Based on RSR distribution, all the teams can be dividing into five ranks in the 20th FIFA World Cup. The characteristics of current high level overall tactical ability teams are whole team cooperation, flexible tactical formation, player’s comprehensive capability, offense-defense balance. Their offense tactical characteristics are passed and controlled play dominant, outstanding pass quality, diversified offense pattern, and tacit place kick. Their defense tactical characteristics are as follows. The purpose of the team tactics is combined with individual player’s specific tactical action; diversified tactics change is unified with player’s adaptability of defensive consciousness; comprehensive personal ability and good decision making skills for Goalkeeper reflects tactical requirements for football elite in the new era.
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