张英波,佟海青.竞技运动中的人体运动感觉与动作调节[J].北京体育大学学报,2011,34(7):114-116.
竞技运动中的人体运动感觉与动作调节
Human Kinesthesia and Motor Adjustments in Competitive Sports
投稿时间:2010-08-30  
DOI:
中文关键词:  关键词:竞技运动  运动感觉  动作调节
英文关键词:Key words: competitive sports  kinesthesia  motor adjustments
基金项目:2010年广州第16届亚洲运动会科学大会论文报告会入选论文。
作者单位
张英波 北京体育大学北京 100084 
佟海青 北京体育大学北京 100084 
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中文摘要:
      摘 要:人们对于人体运动感觉与动作调节领域前沿知识体系和方法的掌握,构成了竞技运动中各个专项运动员采用核心力量训练、振动训练、瑞士球训练、悬吊训练等现代训练方法的理论支撑和应用基础。作者系统地讨论和分析近年来国内外在此领域的研究成果,并通过案例分析,清晰地说明各类竞技运动项目在训练和比赛中人体运动感觉与动作调节的应用形式和相关方法问题。各类竞技运动项目运动员的慢速动作与快速动作具有截然不同的动作产生与控制的模式,也必然要求人们运用明显不同的训练原理与方法。对抗性竞技运动项目与非对抗性竞技运动项目在动作信息处理和动作产生过程方面存在着显著差异。在运动训练和比赛中人体动作的控制与调节水平的提高,取决于多重信息流共同和谐发生作用的时间和空间准确性、动作程序的不断优化,以及适宜的动作产生和控制过程。中央视觉与人的意识相联系,适合于在空间准确性上精确调节和控制慢速的动作和目标行为,而周边视觉有时能够不直接与人的意识相联系,适合于在时间准确性上“自动”及时调节和控制快速的竞技运动动作和目标行为。
英文摘要:
      Abstract:The master of knowledge and methods in human kinesthesia and motor adjustments underlies the theory and application of many modern training methods, such as core training, vibration training, Swiss ball training and sling exercise therapy.Authors systematically discuss new research findings on motor behavior with case studies.It introduces, explains and analyzes their ways of application and methods in the modern competitive sports training. The various slow and quick movements among athletes in different competitive sports exploits distinctive modes of movement production and control. Therefore, coaches and athletes must accordingly employ specific training principles and methods. There exists significant difference in the motor information processing and movement production between competitive sports dominated respectively by open skills and closed skills. The improvement of human motor control and regulation level depends on the synergy, temporal and spatial accuracy of multi-motor information streams, and the refining of human motor program. Focal vision is associated with cortical consciousness, which is good at spatially controlling and regulating slow movements and competitive behavior. Ambient vision is not directly associated with cortical consciousness.It is good at temporally and “automatically” controlling and regulating quick movements and competitive behavior.
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